Chloroplasts (Greek chloros: green; plastes: the one who forms) are small structures within the cells that conduct photosynthesis. They are a type of organelle called plastids that are present in eukaryotic plant cells (algae, aquatic and terrestrial plants) and characterized by having two membranes and a high concentration of the pigment Chlorophyll. Like mitochondria, they originated through the endosymbiosis of a cyanobacteria by an early eukaryotic cell and they have their own DNA which replicates during cell division. In addition to photosynthesis, in their internal matrix called stroma they also carry out other metabolic functions within the plant cells such as fatty acid synthesis or amino acid synthesis.
Communicated by Huete-Ortega M 2020-04-20