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A list of values that have the property "Description" assigned.

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  • '''''J''<sub>max</sub>''' is t
    '''''J''<sub>max</sub>''' is the maximum pathway flux (e.g. [[oxygen flux]]) obtained at saturating substrate concentration. ''J''<sub>max</sub> is a function of metabolic state. In hyperbolic ADP or oxygen kinetics, ''J''<sub>max</sub> is calculated by extrapolation of the hyperbolic function, with good agreement between the calculated and directly measured fluxes, when substrate levels are >20 times the ''c''<sub>50</sub> or [[P50|''p''<sub>50</sub>]].
    or [[P50|''p''<sub>50</sub>]].  +
  • '''''p''<sub>50</sub>''' is th
    '''''p''<sub>50</sub>''' is the oxygen partial pressure at which (a) respiratory flux is 50% of maximum oxygen flux, [[Jmax|''J''<sub>max</sub>]], at saturating oxygen levels. The oxygen affinity is indirectly proportional to the ''p''<sub>50</sub>. The ''p''<sub>50</sub> depends on metabolic state and rate. (b) ''p''<sub>50</sub> is the oxygen partial pressure at which oxygen binding (on myoglobin, haemoglobin) is 50%, or desaturation is 50%.
    emoglobin) is 50%, or desaturation is 50%.  +
  • '''2,4-dinitrophenole''' (C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>4</sub>N<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>; FW = 184.11) is a protonophore acting as an [[uncoupler]] of [[oxidative phosphorylation]].  +
  • '''2-mercaptoacetate''' is an inhibitor of
    '''2-mercaptoacetate''' is an inhibitor of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, MCAD, the rate-limiting enzyme of [[octanoylcarnitine]] oxidation. 2-mercaptoacetate has been used as an inhibitor of [[fatty acid oxidation]] ([[F-pathway control state]]). In permeabilized rat soleus muscle fibers, pre-incubation with 1 mM 2-mercaptoacetate for 45 min resulted in 58% inhibition of MCAD and decreased [[octanoylcarnitine]]&[[malate]] stimulated respiration by approximately 60% ([[Osiki 2016 FASEB J]]).
    pproximately 60% ([[Osiki 2016 FASEB J]]).  +
  • '''21'''### ''O2k-Assembly Kit'': The '''O
    '''21'''### ''O2k-Assembly Kit'': The '''O2k-Assembly Kit''' is a component of the [[O2k-FluoRespirometer]], consisting of 2 [[Stirrer-Bar\white PVDF\15x6 mm|PVDF Stirrer-Bars]], 2 [[PVDF]] or [[PEEK]] O2k-Stoppers, [[OroboPOS-Connector]]s (attached to the [[O2k-Main Unit]]) and cables (power supply, USB-connection). Several components of the O2k-Catalogue: O2k-Assembly Kit are included in the [[O2k-Service Box]] either for shipment or for storage.
    Box]] either for shipment or for storage.  +
  • '''26'''### '''''O2k-Catalogue: OroboPOS components'''''  +
  • '''3'''#### '''''O2k-Catalogue: TIP2k'''''  +
  • '''4'''#### '''''O2k-Catalogue: O2k-Modules'''''. O2k-Modules can be obtained with the O2k or added later, and can be simply installed by the user.  +
  • '''4,5,6,7-Tetrachloro-2-trifluoromethylbenzimidazole''' is a protonophore or [[uncoupler]] of oxidative phosphorylation.  +
  • '''42'''### '''''O2k-Catalogue: TPP<sup>+</sup> ISE-Module'''''  +
  • '''43'''### ''O2k-Catalogue: pH-Electrode''  +
  • '''44'''### ''O2k-Catalogue: O2k-Fluorescence''  +
  • '''46'''### ''O2k-Catalogue: NO-Amp-Module''  +
  • '''5'''#### ''O2k-Catalogue: O2k Accessories and Auxiliary Tools''  +
  • '''51'''### '''''O2k-Catalogue: Titration-Tools'''''  +
  • '''52'''### '''''O2k-Catalogue: PBI-Shredder'''''  +
  • '''53'''### '''''O2k-Catalogue: Microbalance Mettler-Toledo'''''  +
  • '''54'''### ''O2k-Catalogue: O2k-Dissection Tools''  +
  • '''8-Hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid trisodium salt (HPTS)''' is a ratiometric pH fluorophore; pKa = 7.3. Relative molecular mass: ''M''<sub>r</sub> = 524.39  +
  • '''98'''### ''PR-Accessories''  +
  • '''99'''### ''Packing''  +
  • '''AMP-activated protein kinase''' is a regulatory protein which acts as crucial cellular energy sensor by sensing AMP, [[ADP]] and/or Ca<sup>2+</sup> levels in response to metabolic stresses or drug administration.  +
  • '''ATP synthase''' or '''F-ATPase''' (the
    '''ATP synthase''' or '''F-ATPase''' (the use of Complex V is discouraged) catalyzes the [[endergonic]] phosphorylation of [[ADP]] to [[ATP]] in an over-all [[exergonic]] process that is driven by proton translocation along the [[protonmotive force]]. The ATP synthase can be inhibited by [[oligomycin]].
    nthase can be inhibited by [[oligomycin]].  +
  • '''ATPases''' are enzymes that hydrolyse [
    '''ATPases''' are enzymes that hydrolyse [[ATP]], releasing [[ADP]] and [[inorganic phosphate]]. The contamination of isolated mitochondria with ATPases from other organelles and endogenous adenylates can lead to the production of ADP, which can stimulate respiration. This situation would lead to an overestimation of [[LEAK-respiration]] measured in the absence of ADP, ''L''(n) and subsequent inhibition of respiration by oligomycin, ''L''(Omy).
    of respiration by oligomycin, ''L''(Omy).  +
  • '''Acceleration''', '''''a''''', is the ch
    '''Acceleration''', '''''a''''', is the change of [[velocity]] over time [m·s<sup>-2</sup>]. '''''a''''' = d'''''v'''''/d''t'' The symbol ''g'' is used for acceleration of free fall. The standard acceleration of free fall is defined as ''g''<sub>n</sub> = 9.80665 [m·s<sup>-2</sup>].
    = 9.80665 [m·s<sup>-2</sup>].  +
  • '''Acclimation''' is an immediate time scale adaptation expressing pheotypic plasticity in response to changes of a single variable under controlled laboratory conditions.  +
  • '''Acclimatization''' is an immediate time scale adaptation expressing phenotypic plasticity in response to changes of habitat conditions and life style where several variables may change simultaneously.  +
  • '''Acyl-CoA oxidase''' is considered as a
    '''Acyl-CoA oxidase''' is considered as a rate-limiting step in peroxysomal ''β''-oxidation, which carries out few ''β''-oxidation cycles, thus shortening very-long-chain fatty acids (>C<sub>20</sub>). Electrons are directly transferred from FADH<sub>2</sub> to O<sub>2</sub> with the formation of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>.
    gt;2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>.  +
  • '''Adaptation''' is an evolutionary time scale expression of phenotypic plasticity in response to selective pressures prevailing under various habitat conditions.  +
  • '''Additivity''' describes the princple of
    '''Additivity''' describes the princple of substrate control of mitochondrial respiration with [[convergent electron flow]]. The '''additive effect of convergent electron flow''' is a consequence of electron flow converging at the '''[[Q-junction]]''' from respiratory Complexes I and II ([[NS-linked substrate state |NS or CI<small>&</small>II e-input]]). Further additivity may be observed by convergent electron flow through [[Glycerophosphate_dehydrogenase_complex|glycerophosphate dehydrogenase]] and [[electron-transferring flavoprotein complex]]. Convergent electron flow corresponds to the operation of the [[TCA cycle]] and mitochondrial substrate supply ''in vivo''. Physiological substrate combinations supporting convergent NS e-input are required for reconstitution of intracellular TCA cycle function. Convergent electron flow simultaneously through Complexes I and II into the [[Q-junction]] supports higher [[OXPHOS-capacity]] and [[ET-capacity]] than separate electron flow through either CI or CII. The convergent [[NS]] effect may be completely or partially additive, suggesting that conventional bioenergetic protocols with [[Mitochondrial preparations|mt-preparations]] have underestimated cellular OXPHOS-capacities, due to the gating effect through a single branch. Complete additivity is defined as the condition when the sum of separatly measured respiratory capacities, N + S, is identical to the capacity measured in the state with combined substrates, NS (CI<small>&</small>II). This condition of complete additivity, NS=N+S, would be obtained if electron channeling through supercomplex CI, CIII and CIV does not interact with the pool of redox intermediates in the pathway from CII to CIII and CIV, and if the capacity of the phosphorylation system (≈''P'') does not limit OXPHOS-capacity ([[Excess E-P capacity factor |excess ''E-P'' capacity factor]] is zero). In most cases, however, additivity is incomplete, NS < N+S.
    er, additivity is incomplete, NS < N+S.  +
  • '''Adenine nucleotides''', which are also sometimes referred to as adenosines or adenylates, are a group of organic molecules including AMP, [[ADP]] and [[ATP]]. These molecules present the major players of energy storage and transfer.  +
  • '''Adenosine diphosphate''' is a nucleotid
    '''Adenosine diphosphate''' is a nucleotide. In [[OXPHOS]] core metabolism, ADP is a substrate of [[ANT]] and [[ATP synthase]] in the [[phosphorylation system]]. ADP is the discharged or low-energy counterpart of [[ATP]]. ADP can accept chemical energy by regaining a phosphate group to become ATP, in substrate-level phosphorylation (in anaerobic catabolism), at the expense of solar energy (in photosynthetic cells) or chemiosmotic energy (respiration in heterotrophic cells). ADP is added to [[mitochondrial preparations]] at kinetically saturating concentrations to induce the active state for evaluation of [[OXPHOS capacity]].
    ate for evaluation of [[OXPHOS capacity]].  +
  • '''Adenosine triphosphate''' is a nucleotid and functions as the major carrier of chemical energy in the cells. As it transfers its energy to other molecules, it looses its terminal phosphate group and becomes adenosine diphosphate ([[ADP]]).  +
  • '''Adenylate kinase''', which is also called myokinase, is a phosphotransferase enzyme that is located in the mitochondrial intermembrane space and catalyzes the rephosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the reaction ATP + AMP ↔ ADP + ADP.  +
  • '''Advancement per volume''' or volume-spe
    '''Advancement per volume''' or volume-specific advancement, d<sub>tr</sub>''Y'', is related to [[advancement]] of a transformation, d<sub>tr</sub>''Y'' = d<sub>tr</sub>''ξ''∙''V''<sup>-1</sup> [MU∙L<sup>-1</sup>]. Compare d<sub>tr</sub>''Y'' with the amount of substance ''j'' per volume, ''c''<sub>''j''</sub> ([[concentration]]), related to [[amount]], ''c''<sub>''j''</sub> = ''n''<sub>''j''</sub>∙''V''<sup>-1</sup> [mol∙''V''<sup>-1</sup>]. Advancement per volume is particularly introduced for chemical reactions, d<sub>r</sub>''Y'', and has the dimension of concentration (amount per volume [mol∙L<sup>-1</sup>]). In an [[open system]] at steady-state, however, the concentration does not change as the reaction advances. Only in [[closed system]]s and [[isolated system]]s, specific advancement equals the change in concentration divided by the stoichiometric number, d<sub>r</sub>''Y'' = d''c''<sub>''j''</sub>/''ν''<sub>''j''</sub> (closed system) d<sub>r</sub>''Y'' = d<sub>r</sub>''c''<sub>''j''</sub>/''ν''<sub>''j''</sub> (general) With a focus on ''internal'' transformations (i; specifically: chemical reactions, r), d''c''<sub>''j''</sub> is replaced by the partial change of concentration, d<sub>r</sub>''c''<sub>''j''</sub> (a transformation variable or process variable). d<sub>r</sub>''c''<sub>''j''</sub> contributes to the total change of concentration, d''c''<sub>''j''</sub> (a system variable or variable of state). In open systems at steady-state, d<sub>r</sub>''c''<sub>''j''</sub> is compensated by ''external processes'', d<sub>e</sub>''c''<sub>''j''</sub> = -d<sub>r</sub>''c''<sub>''j''</sub>, exerting an effect on the total concentration change of substance ''j'', d''c''<sub>''j''</sub> = d<sub>r</sub>''c''<sub>''j''</sub> + d<sub>e</sub>''c''<sub>''j''</sub> = 0 (steady state) d''c''<sub>''j''</sub> = d<sub>r</sub>''c''<sub>''j''</sub> + d<sub>e</sub>''c''<sub>''j''</sub> (general)
    'c''<sub>''j''</sub> (general)  +
  • '''Air calibration''' of an oxygen sensor
    '''Air calibration''' of an oxygen sensor (polarographic oxygen sensor) is performed routinely on any day before starting a respirometric experiment. The volume fraction of oxygen in dry air is constant. An aqueous solution in equilibrium with air has the same partial pressure as that in water vapour saturated air. The water vapour is a function of temperature only. The partial oxygen pressure in aqueous solution in equilibrium with air is, therefore, a function of total barometric pressure and temperature. Bubbling an aqueous solution with air generates deviations from barometric pressure within small gas bubbles and is, therefore, not recommended. To equilibrate an aqueous solution ata known partial pressure of oxygen [kPa], the aqueous solution is stirred rigorously in a chamber enclosing air at constant temperature. The concentration of oxygen, ''c''<sub>O2</sub> [µM], is obtained at any partial pressure by multiplying the partial pressure by the oxygen solubility, ''S''<sub>O2</sub> [µM/kPa]. ''S''<sub>O2</sub> is a function of temperature and composition of the salt solution, and is thus a function of the experimental medium. The [[Oxygen_solubility_factor|solubility factor]] of the medium, ''F''<sub>M</sub>, expresses the oxygen solubility relative to pure water at any experimental temperature. ''F''<sub>M</sub> is 0.89 in serum (37 °C) and 0.92 in [[MiR06]] or [[MiR05]] (30 °C and 37 °C).
    [[MiR06]] or [[MiR05]] (30 °C and 37 °C).  +
  • '''Aluminium trolley''' (700x500x60 mm); carrying capacity 120 kg; incl. packing box; for transport of O2k.  +
  • '''Amp calibration''' indicates the calibration of the amperometric O2k-channel.  +
  • '''Amplex UltraRed''' (AmR) is used as an
    '''Amplex UltraRed''' (AmR) is used as an [[extrinsic fluorophores |extrinsic fluorophore]] for measurement of [[hydrogen peroxide]] production ([[ROS]]) by cells or mitochondrial preparations. The reaction of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> and AmR is catalyzed by [[horseradish peroxidase]] to produce the red fluorescent compound [[resorufin]] (excitation wavelength 563 nm, emission 587 nm). The change of emitted fluorescence intensity is directly proportional to the concentration of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> added, whereby the H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> is consumed.
    >O<sub>2</sub> is consumed.  +
  • '''Amytal''' sodium salt (synonym: amobarbital; 5-Ethyl-5-isoamylbarbituric acid) is a barbiturate drug and an inhibitor of [[Complex I]].  +
  • '''Anaerobic''' metabolism takes place wit
    '''Anaerobic''' metabolism takes place without the use of molecular oxygen, in contrast to '''[[aerobic]]''' metabolism. The capacity for energy assimilation and growth under '''[[anoxic]]''' conditions is the ultimate criterion for '''facultative anaerobiosis'''. Anaerobic ''metabolism'' may proceed not only under [[anoxic]] ''conditions'' or ''states'', but also under [[hyperoxic]] and [[normoxic]] conditions ('''aerobic glycolysis'''), and under [[hypoxic]] and [[microxic]] conditions below the [[limiting oxygen pressure]].
    ns below the [[limiting oxygen pressure]].  +
  • '''Anaplerosis''' is the process of format
    '''Anaplerosis''' is the process of formation of intermediates of the [[tricarboxylic acid cycle]]. [[Malic enzyme]] (mtME), phosphoenopyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), propionyl-CoA carboxylase, pyruvate carboxylase and [[proline dehydrogenase]] play important roles in anaplerosis.
    ase]] play important roles in anaplerosis.  +
  • '''Anaplerotic pathway control states''' a
    '''Anaplerotic pathway control states''' are fuelled by single substrates which are transported into the mitochondrial matrix and increase the pool of intermediates of the [[tricarboxylic acid cycle]]. [[Malic enzyme]] (mtME), phosphoenopyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), propionyl-CoA carboxylase, and pyruvate carboxylase play important roles in [[anaplerosis]]. The [[glutamate anaplerotic pathway control state]] and [[malate anaplerotic pathway control state]] are the most important anaplerotic substrate control states (aN).
    anaplerotic substrate control states (aN).  +
  • '''Antimycin A''' is an inhibitor of [[Com
    '''Antimycin A''' is an inhibitor of [[Complex III]] (CIII). It binds to the Qi site of CIII and inhibits the transfer of electrons from heme ''b''<sub>H</sub> to oxidized Q (Qi site inhibitor). High concentrations of antimycin A also inhibit acyl-CoA oxidase and D-amino acid oxidase.
    acyl-CoA oxidase and D-amino acid oxidase.  +
  • '''Aqua destillata''' (a.d.) is the Latin
    '''Aqua destillata''' (a.d.) is the Latin name for '''distilled [[water]]''', H<sub>2</sub>O. When a.d. is used in various solution protocols, it may indicate that water with the highest possible quality or lowest possible level of impurities should be used, as may be reached not only with distilled water but also with high-purity deionised water.
    but also with high-purity deionised water.  +
  • '''Artemisinin''' and various derivatives
    '''Artemisinin''' and various derivatives are potent anti-malaria drugs which have additionally anti-tumorigenic effects, particularly when targeted at mitochondria. The anti-malaria effect is associated with artemisinin's action on heme. Mitochondria are involved in the synthesis of heme, and may play additional roles in the anti-tumorigenic effect of artemisinin.
    he anti-tumorigenic effect of artemisinin.  +
  • '''Atractyloside''' is an inhibitor of the
    '''Atractyloside''' is an inhibitor of the [[Adenine nucleotide translocator|adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT)]]. It is an extremely toxic glycoside that inhibits oxidative phosphorylation by blocking the transfer of adenosine nucleotides through the mitochondrial membrane.
    otides through the mitochondrial membrane.  +
  • '''Attribute''' in general is a characteristic or property. In databases an attribute describes a column in a table. Rows then represent the according attribute values.  +
  • '''Auranofin''' (AF) is a gold complex which inhibites thioredoxin reductase (TrxR).  +
  • '''Automatic pan''' (only for real-time da
    '''Automatic pan''' (only for real-time data recording) toggles automatic panning on/off by clicking in the [[O2k status line]]. If it is on (green), the time range is maintained while the time axis always shows the currently recorded data, i.e. the value of the offset (minimum value) increases as experimental time proceeds. If it is off (yellow), the time axis is static. This allows for manually panning backwards to observe previous sections of the experiment at a given time range. In this mode, the actual experimental time may be off-scale. Toggle between "Pan auto" and "Pan off" by a left-click on the text. It does not influence continuous data recording. It is recommended to maintain automatic panning on during the experiment, except for specifically viewing earlier sections of the experiment.
    iewing earlier sections of the experiment.  +