Levitsky 2019 RSC Adv
|Levitsky Y, Pegouske DJ, Hammer SS, Frantz NL, Fisher KP, Muchnik AB, Saripalli AR, Kirschner P, Bazil JN, Busik JV, Proshlyakov DA (2019) Micro-respirometry of whole cells and isolated mitochondria. RSC Adv 9:33257-33267.|
Abstract: Oxygen consumption is a key metric of metabolism in aerobic organisms. Current respirometric methods led to seminal discoveries despite limitations such as high sample demand, exchange with atmospheric O2, and cumulative titration protocols leading to limited choice of useable tissue, complex data interpretation, and restricted experimental design. We developed a sensitive and customizable method of measuring O2 consumption rates by a variety of biological samples in microliter volumes without interference from the aerobic environment. We demonstrate that O2 permeability of the photopolymer, VeroClear, is comparable to that of polyetheretherketone (0.125 vs. 0.143 barrer, respectively) providing an efficient barrier to oxygen ingress. Optical transparency of VeroClear, combined with high resolution 3D printing, allows for optode-based oxygen detection in enclosed samples. These properties yield a microrespirometer with over 100× dynamic range for O2 consumption rates. Importantly, the enclosed respirometer configuration and very low oxygen permeability of materials makes it suitable, with resin pre-conditioning, for quantitative assessment of O2 consumption rates at any desired [O2], including hyperbaric, physiological or hypoxic conditions as necessary for each cell type. We characterized two configurations to study soluble enzymes, isolated mitochondria, cells in suspension, and adherent cells cultured on-chip. Improved sensitivity allows for routine quantitative detection of respiration by as few as several hundred cells. Specific activity of cell suspensions in the microrespirometer was in close agreement with that obtained by high-resolution polarographic respirometry. Adherent cell protocols allowed for physiologically relevant assessment of respiration in retinal pigment epithelial cells, ARPE-19, which displayed lower metabolic rates compared with those in suspension. By exchanging medium composition, we demonstrate that cells can be transiently inhibited by cyanide and that 99.6% of basal O2 uptake is recovered upon its removal. This approach is amenable to new experimental designs and precision measurements on limited sample quantities across basic research and applied fields.
• Bioblast editor: Iglesias-Gonzalez J
- Iglesias-Gonzalez et al (2021) Proficiency test in mt-respiration: A necessary tool for reliable and reproducible results. MitoFit Preprints 2021 (in prep).
MitoFit 2021 PT