Body mass index

From Bioblast
Jump to: navigation, search
Bioblasts - Richard Altmann and MiPArt by Odra Noel
MitoPedia     Terms and abbreviations     Preprints and history     MiP and biochemistry     Concepts and methods     MitoPedia: SUIT     MitoPedia: O2k


Body mass index


The body mass index, BMI, is the ratio of body mass to height squared (BMI=M·H-2), recommended by the WHO as a general indicator of underweight (BMI<18.5 kg·m-2), overweight (BMI>25 kg·m-2) and obesity (BMI>30 kg·m-2). Keys et al (1972; see 2014) emphasized that 'the prime criterion must be the relative independence of the index from height'. It is exactly the dependence of the BMI on height - from children to adults, women to men, Caucasians to Asians -, which requires adjustments of BMI-cutoff points. This deficiency is resolved by the body mass excess relative to the healthy reference population.

Abbreviation: BMI

Reference: Keys 2014 Int J Epidemiol

Healthy reference population     Body mass excess         BFE         BME cutoffs         BMI         H         M         VO2max         mitObesity drugs

BMI BruceBlaus.png
Communicated by Gnaiger Erich (2020-02-15) last update 2020-07-24
in: Catastrophe XXX XXX-mass Carol on BME and mitObesity of A X-mass Carol
Adolphe Quetelet (1796-1874), the founder of anthropometry and pioneer in statistics, considered the ratio BMI=M·H-2 (per area; Quetelet index) and BMI=M·H-3 (per volume; related to the ponderal index).
The vast majority of illustrations of the BMI compares people of various fatness at the same height (H; dashed horizontal lines in the two Figures). Without variation of height, the concept of the BMI would be simple and redundant: the BMI increases linearly as a function of body mass excess at constant height. At zero body mass excess of the healthy reference population, however, the BMI° (indicating zero underweight or overweight) increases by about 1 BMI unit with every 0.1 m increase in height above 1.2 m/x. Whereas the healthy reference BMI° is 22 kg·m-2 at a height of 1.9 m/x, it is 18 kg·m-2 at 1.5 m/x, and declines to 15 kg·m-2 for children of 1.0 m/x at less than 5 years of age.
More details: » Healthy reference population (HRP); » Body mass excess (BME)
BMI huffpost.png

References: BMI

  • Keys A, Fidanza F, Karvonen MJ, Kimura N, Taylor HL (2014) Indices of relative weight and obesity. Int J Epidemiol 43:655-65. - »Bioblast link«
  • NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC) (2017) Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults. Lancet 390:2627–42. - »Bioblast link«
  • WHO Obesity (retrieved from, 2020-07-05)
  • Ritchie Hannah, Roser Max (2017) Obesity. Published online at Retrieved from: '' [Online Resource]

Click to expand or collaps
- >>>>>>> - Click on [Expand] or [Collapse] - >>>>>>>
Sort in ascending/descending order by a click on one of the small symbols in squares below.
Default sorting: chronological. Empty fields appear first in ascending order. 
Wiebe 2021 JAMA Netw Open2021Wiebe N, Ye F, Crumley ET, Bello A, Stenvinkel P, Tonelli M (2021) Temporal associations among body mass index, fasting insulin, and systemic inflammation. A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Netw Open 4:e211263. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.1263.Diabetes
Qingxian 2020 Lancet2020Qingxian Cai, Chen Fengjuan, Fang Luo, Xiaohui Liu, Tao Wang, Qikai Wu, Qing He, Zhaoqin Wang, Yingxia Liu, Jun Chen, Lei Liu, Lin Xu (2020) Obesity and COVID-19 severity in a designated hospital in Shenzhen, China. Lancet Preprint at SSRN
Popkin 2020 Lancet2020Popkin BM, Corvalan C, Grummer-Strawn LM (2020) Dynamics of the double burden of malnutrition and the changing nutrition reality. Lancet 395:65-74.HumanObesity
Hwaung 2020 Obes Rev2020Hwaung P, Heo M, Kennedy S, Hong S, Thomas DM, Shepherd J, Heymsfield SB (2020) Optimum waist circumference-height indices for evaluating adult adiposity: An analytic review. Obes Rev 21(1):e12947. doi: 10.1111/obr.12947.HumanFatObesity
Bhatraju 2020 N Engl J Med2020Bhatraju Pavan K, Ghassemieh Bijan J, Nichols Michelle, Kim Richard, Jerome Keith R, Nalla Arun K, Greninger Alexander L, Pipavath Sudhakar, Wurfel Mark M, Evans Laura, Kritek Patricia A, West T Eoin, Luks Andrew, Gerbino Anthony, Dale Chris R, Goldman Jason D, O’Mahony Shane, Mikacenic Carmen (2020) Covid-19 in critically ill patients in the Seattle region - case series. N Engl J Med 2020;NEJMoa2004500 [published online ahead of print, 2020 Mar 30].HumanInfectious
Chambers 2020 J Appl Physiol (1985)2020Chambers TL, Burnett TR, Raue U, Lee GA, Finch WH, Graham BM, Trappe TA, Trappe S (2020) Skeletal muscle size, function, and adiposity with lifelong aerobic exercise. J Appl Physiol (1985) 128:368–78.HumanSkeletal muscle
Khan 2020 Cureus2020Khan QU, Zaffar S, Rehan AM, Rashid RR, Ashraf H, Hafeez F (2020) Relationship of major depression with body mass index and salivary cortisol. Cureus 12:e6577.HumanNeurodegenerative
Murthy 2020 JAMA Cardiol2020Murthy VL, Xia R, Baldridge AS, Carnethon MR, Sidney S, Bouchard C, Sarzynski MA, Lima JAC, Lewis GD, Shah SJ, Fornage M, Shah RV (2020) Polygenic risk, fitness, and obesity in the Coronary Artery Risk Development In Young Adults (CARDIA) study. JAMA Cardiol 2020 Jan 8. doi: 10.1001/jamacardio.2019.5220.HumanCardiovascular
Floud 2019 Neurology2020Floud S, Simpson RF, Balkwill A, Brown A, Goodill A, Gallacher J, Sudlow C, Harris P, Hofman A, Parish S, Reeves GK, Green J, Peto R, Beral V (2019) Body mass index, diet, physical inactivity, and the incidence of dementia in 1 million UK women. Neurology 94:e1-e10. doi:10.1212.HumanAging;senescence
Petrilli 2020 medRxiv2020Petrilli Christopher M, Jones Simon A, Yang Jie, Rajagopalan Harish, O'Donnell Luke F, Chernyak Yelena, Tobin Katie, Cerfolio Robert J, Francois Fritz, Horwitz Leora I (2020) Factors associated with hospitalization and critical illness among 4,103 patients with COVID-19 disease in New York City. medRxiv doi: .HumanAging;senescence
Kong 2020 JAMA Netw Open2020Kong L, Nilsson IAK, Brismar K, Gissler M, Lavebratt C (2020) Associations of different types of maternal diabetes and body mass index with offspring psychiatric disorders. JAMA Netw Open 2020 Feb 5;3(2):e1920787.HumanAutism
Cox 2020 JAMA Netw Open2020Cox Bianca, Luyten Leen J, Dockx Yinthe, Provost Eline, Madhloum Narjes, De Boever Patrick, Neven Kristof Y, Sassi Franco, Sleurs Hanne, Vrijens Karen, Vineis Paolo, Plusquin Michelle, Nawrot Tim S (2020) Association between maternal prepregnancy body mass index and anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, and retinal microvasculature in children age 4 to 6 years. JAMA Netw Open 3:e204662HumanCardiovascular
Wells 2020 Lancet2020Wells JC, Sawaya AL, Wibaek R, Mwangome M, Poullas MS, Yajnik CS, Demaio A (2020) The double burden of malnutrition: aetiological pathways and consequences for health. Lancet 395:75-88.HumanFat
Corlin 2020 JAMA Cardiol2020Corlin Laura, Short Meghan I, Vasan Ramachandran S, Xanthakis Vanessa (2020) Association of the duration of ideal cardiovascular health through adulthood with cardiometabolic outcomes and mortality in the Framingham offspring study. JAMA Cardiol Published online March 11, 2020.HumanAging;senescence
Zucker 2020 Biol Sex Differ2020Zucker I, Prendergast BJ (2020) Sex differences in pharmacokinetics predict adverse drug reactions in women. Biol Sex Differ 11:32.Human
Stefan 2020 Nat Rev Endocrinol2020Stefan N, Birkenfeld AL, Schulze MB, Ludwig DS (2020) Obesity and impaired metabolic health in patients with COVID-19. Nat Rev Endocrinol 2020:1‐2 [published online ahead of print, 2020 Apr 23].HumanCardiovascular
Meng 2020 JAMA Netw Open2020Meng R, Yu C, Liu N, He M, Lv J, Guo Y, Bian Z, Yang L, Chen Y, Zhang X, Chen Z, Wu T, Pan A, Li L, China Kadoorie Biobank Collaborative Group (2020) Association of depression with all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality among adults in China. JAMA Netw Open 3:e1921043.HumanCardiovascular
Mendham 2020 Sci Rep2020Mendham Amy E, Larsen Steen, George Cindy, Adams Kevin, Hauksson Jon, Olsson Tommy, Fortuin-de Smidt Melony C, Nono Nankam Pamela A, Hakim Olah, Goff Louise M, Pheiffer Carmen, Goedecke Julia H (2020) Exercise training results in depot-specific adaptations to adipose tissue mitochondrial function. Sci Rep 10:3785.FatDiabetes
Bahrami 2020 JAMA Psychiatry2020Bahrami S, Steen NE, Shadrin A, O'Connell K, Frei O, Bettella F, Wirgenes KV, Krull F, Fan CC, Dale AM, Smeland OB, Djurovic S, Andreassen OA (2020) Shared genetic loci between body mass index and major psychiatric disorders: a genome-wide association study. JAMA Psychiatry 2020 Jan 8. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2019.4188.HumanCardiovascular
Ejarque 2019 Int J Obes (Lond)2019Ejarque M, Ceperuelo-Mallafré V, Serena C, Maymo-Masip E, Duran X, Díaz-Ramos A, Millan-Scheiding M, Núñez-Álvarez Y, Núñez-Roa C, Gama P, Garcia-Roves PM, Peinado MA, Gimble JM, Zorzano A, Vendrell J, Fernández-Veledo S (2019) Adipose tissue mitochondrial dysfunction in human obesity is linked to a specific DNA methylation signature in adipose-derived stem cells. Int J Obes (Lond) 43:1256-68.HumanFatObesity
Fumagalli 2019 JAMA Cardiol2019Fumagalli C, Maurizi N, Day SM, Ashley EA, Michels M, Colan SD, Jacoby D, Marchionni N, Vincent-Tompkins J, Ho CY, Olivotto I, SHARE Investigators (2019) Association of obesity with adverse long-term outcomes in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. JAMA Cardiol 2019 Nov 6:1-8. doi: 10.1001/jamacardio.2019.4268.HumanCardiovascular
Rigotto 2019 Oxid Med Cell Longev2019Rigotto G, Basso E (2019) Mitochondrial dysfunctions: a thread sewing together Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, and obesity. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2019:7210892. doi: 10.1155/2019/7210892.HumanNervous system
Kenny 2019 Circ Res2019Kenny HC, Abel ED (2019) Heart failure in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Circ Res 124:121–41.HumanHeartCell death
Oxidative stress;RONS
Misra 2019 J Postgrad Med2019Misra P, Singh AK, Archana S, Lohiya A, Kant S (2019) Relationship between body mass index and percentage of body fat, estimated by bio-electrical impedance among adult females in a rural community of North India: A cross-sectional study. J Postgrad Med 65:134-40.HumanFatObesity
Xiao 2019 Int J Hypertens2019Xiao X, Wang W, Sa R, Qiu L, Liu F (2019) The investigation of sex differences in the effect of body mass index. Int J Hypertens 2019:1360328.HumanFatOther
Lewis 2019 Int J Mol Sci2019Lewis MT, Kasper JD, Bazil JN, Frisbee JC, Wiseman RW (2019) Quantification of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in metabolic disease: application to Type 2 diabetes. Int J Mol Sci 20:5271.Human
Skeletal muscleDiabetes
Winnica 2019 Antioxid Redox Signal2019Winnica D, Corey C, Mullett S, Reynolds M, Hill G, Wendell S, Que L, Holguin F, Shiva S (2019) Bioenergetic differences in the airway epithelium of lean versus obese asthmatics are driven by nitric oxide and reflected in circulating platelets. Antioxid Redox Signal 31:673–86.HumanLung;gill
Endothelial;epithelial;mesothelial cell
Blood cells
Cruz-Jentoft 2019 Age Ageing2019Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Bahat G, Bauer J, Boirie Y, OBruyère O, Cederholm T, Cooper C, Landi F, Rolland Y, Sayer AA, Schneider SM, Sieber CC, Topinkova E, Vandewoude M, Visser M, Zamboni M (2019) Sarcopenia: revised European consensus on definition and diagnosis. Age Ageing 48:16–31.HumanSkeletal muscleAging;senescence
NCD-RisC 2019 Nature2019NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC)(2019) Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adults. Nature 569:260-4.HumanObesity
Yang 2019 JAMA Netw Open2019Yang J, Christophi CA, Farioli A, Baur DM, Moffatt S, Zollinger TW, Kales SN (2019) Association between push-up exercise capacity and future cardiovascular events among active adult men. JAMA Netw Open 2019;2:e188341.HumanCardiovascular
Hood 2019 Nutr Diabetes2019Hood K, Ashcraft J, Watts K, Hong S, Choi W, Heymsfield SB, Gautam RK, Thomas D (2019) Allometric scaling of weight to height and resulting body mass index thresholds in two Asian populations. Nutr Diabetes 9:2. doi: 10.1038/s41387-018-0068-3.HumanObesity
De Onis 2019 Public Health Nutrition2019de Onis M, Borghi E, Arimond M, Webb P, Croft T, Saha K, De-Regil LM, Thuita F, Heidkamp R, Krasevec J, Hayashi C, Flores-Ayala R (2019) Prevalence thresholds for wasting, overweight and stunting in children under 5 years. Public Health Nutrition 22:175-9.HumanObesity
Weir 2019 StatPearls2019Weir CB, Jan A (2019) BMI classification percentile and cut off points. StatPearls 2019 Dec 7.HumanObesity
Collins 2018 Front Physiol2018Collins Kelsey H, Herzog Walter, MacDonald Graham Z, Reimer Raylene A, Rios Jaqueline L, Smith Ian C, Zernicke Ronald F, Hart David A (2018) Obesity, metabolic syndrome, and musculoskeletal disease: common inflammatory pathways suggest a central role for loss of muscle integrity. Front Physiol 9:112.HumanSkeletal muscleAging;senescence
Gutin 2018 Soc Theory Health2018Gutin I (2018) In BMI we trust: reframing the body mass index as a measure of health. Soc Theory Health 16:256–71.HumanObesity
Lund 2018 Acta Physiol (Oxf)2018Lund MT, Larsen S, Hansen M, Courraud J, Floyd AK, Støckel M, Helge JW, Dela F (2018) Mitochondrial respiratory capacity remains stable despite a comprehensive and sustained increase in insulin sensitivity in obese patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery. Acta Physiol (Oxf) 223:e13032.HumanSkeletal muscleDiabetes
Woolcott 2018 Sci Rep2018Woolcott OO, Bergman RN (2018) Relative fat mass (RFM) as a new estimator of whole-body fat percentage ─ A cross-sectional study in American adult individuals. Sci Rep 8:10980.HumanFatObesity
Allard 2018 J Clin Endocrinol Metab2018Allard NAE, Schirris TJJ, Verheggen RJ, Russel FGM, Rodenburg RJ, Smeitink JAM, Thompson PD, Hopman MTE, Timmers S (2018) Statins affect skeletal muscle performance: evidence for disturbances in energy metabolism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 103:75-84.HumanSkeletal muscleMyopathy
Mialich 2018 J Electr Bioimp2018Mialich MS, Silva BR, Jordao AA (2018) Cutoff points of BMI for classification of nutritional status using bioelectrical impedance analysis. J Electr Bioimp 9:24-30.HumanFatObesity
Madeo 2018 Science2018Madeo F, Eisenberg T, Pietrocola F, Kroemer G (2018) Spermidine in health and disease. Science 359:eaan2788.HumanAging;senescence
Cerqueira 2018 Adv Nutr2018Cerqueira MS, Santos CAD, Silva DAS, Amorim PRDS, Marins JCB, Franceschini SDCC (2018) Validity of the body adiposity index in predicting body fat in adults: a systematic review. Adv Nutr 9:617-24.HumanFatObesity
Pearson-Stuttard 2018 Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol2018Pearson-Stuttard J, Zhou B, Kontis V, Bentham J, Gunter MJ, Ezzati M (2018) Worldwide burden of cancer attributable to diabetes and high body-mass index: a comparative risk assessment. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 6:e6-e15.HumanAging;senescence
Distefano 2018 J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle2018Distefano G, Standley RA, Zhang X, Carnero EA, Yi F, Cornnell HH, Coen PM (2018) Physical activity unveils the relationship between mitochondrial energetics, muscle quality, and physical function in older adults. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 9:279-94.HumanSkeletal muscleAging;senescence
Mui 2018 Am J Mens Health2018Mui P, Hill SE, Thorpe RJ Jr (2018) Overweight and obesity differences across ethnically diverse subgroups of asian american men. Am J Mens Health 12:1958-65.HumanObesity
Gonzalez-Freire 2018 Aging Cell2018Gonzalez-Freire M, Scalzo P, D'Agostino J, Moore ZA, Diaz-Ruiz A, Fabbri E, Zane A, Chen B, Becker KG, Lehrmann E, Zukley L, Chia CW, Tanaka T, Coen PM, Bernier M, de Cabo R, Ferrucci L (2018) Skeletal muscle ex vivo mitochondrial respiration parallels decline in vivo oxidative capacity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscle strength: the Baltimore longitudinal study of aging. Aging Cell 17.HumanSkeletal muscleAging;senescence
Robach 2018 Scand J Med Sci Sports2018Robach P, Hansen J, Pichon A, Meinild Lundby AK, Dandanell S, Slettaløkken Falch G, Hammarström D, Pesta DH, Siebenmann C, Keiser S, Kérivel P, Whist JE, Rønnestad BR, Lundby C (2018) Hypobaric live high-train low does not improve aerobic performance more than live low-train low in cross-country skiers. Scand J Med Sci Sports 28:1636-52.HumanSkeletal muscleHypoxia
Greggio 2017 Cell Metab2017Greggio C, Jha P, Kulkarni SS, Lagarrigue S, Broskey NT, Boutant M, Wang X, Alonso SC, Ofori E, Auwerx J, Cantó C, Amati F (2017) Enhanced respiratory chain supercomplex formation in response to exercise in human skeletal muscle. Cell Metab 25:301-11.HumanSkeletal muscle
NCD-RisC 2017 Lancet2017NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC) (2017) Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults. Lancet 390:2627–42.HumanObesity
Pollack 2017 J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci2017Pollack RM, Barzilai N, Anghel V, Kulkarni AS, Golden A, O'Broin P, Sinclair DA, Bonkowski MS, Coleville AJ, Powell D, Kim S, Moaddel R, Stein D, Zhang K, Hawkins M, Crandall JP (2017) Resveratrol improves vascular function and mitochondrial number but not glucose metabolism in older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 72:1703–9.HumanSkeletal muscleAging;senescence
Nabben 2017 Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol2017Nabben M, Schmitz JP, Ciapaite J, Le Clercq CM, van Riel NA, Haak HR, Nicolay K, de Coo IF, Smeets HJ, Praet SF, van Loon LJ, Prompers JJ (2017) Dietary nitrate does not reduce oxygen cost of exercise or improve muscle mitochondrial function in mitochondrial myopathy patients. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 312:689-701.HumanSkeletal muscleMyopathy
Asping 2017 Eur J Clin Pharmacol2017Asping M, Stride N, Søgaard D, Dohlmann TL, Helge JW, Dela F, Larsen S (2017) The effects of 2 weeks of statin treatment on mitochondrial respiratory capacity in middle-aged males: the LIFESTAT study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 73:679-87.Human
Lalia 2017 Aging (Albany NY)2017Lalia AZ, Dasari S, Robinson MM, Abid H, Morse DM, Klaus KA, Lanza IR (2017) Influence of omega-3 fatty acids on skeletal muscle protein metabolism and mitochondrial bioenergetics in older adults. Aging (Albany NY) 9:1096-1129.HumanSkeletal muscleAging;senescence
Mondal 2017 J Clin Diagn Res2017Mondal H, Mishra SP (2017) Effect of BMI, body fat percentage and fat free mass on maximal oxygen consumption in healthy young adults. J Clin Diagn Res 11:CC17-20.HumanObesity
Da Silva 2017 Nutrition2017da Silva BR, Mialich MS, de Paula FJA, Jordao AA (2017) Comparison of new adiposity indices for the prediction of body fat in hospitalized patients. Nutrition 42:99-105.HumanFatObesity
Goedecke 2017 JMIR Res Protoc2017Goedecke JH, Mendham AE, Clamp L, Nono Nankam PA, Fortuin-de Smidt MC, Phiri L, Micklesfield LK, Keswell D, Woudberg NJ, Lecour S, Alhamud A, Kaba M, Lutomia FM, van Jaarsveld PJ, de Villiers A, Kahn SE, Chorell E, Hauksson J, Olsson T (2017) An exercise intervention to unravel the mechanisms underlying insulin resistance in a cohort of black South African women: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial. JMIR Res Protoc 03/10/2017:9098.HumanSkeletal muscle
Kenny 2017 Diabetologia2017Kenny HC, Rudwill F, Breen L, Salanova M, Blottner D, Heise T, Heer M, Blanc S, O'Gorman DJ (2017) Bed rest and resistive vibration exercise unveil novel links between skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and insulin resistance. Diabetologia 60:1491-501.HumanSkeletal muscleDiabetes
Wollner 2017 J Public Health Res2017Wollner M, Paulo Roberto BB, Alysson Roncally SC, Jurandir N, Edil LS (2017) Accuracy of the WHO's body mass index cut-off points to measure gender- and age-specific obesity in middle-aged adults living in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. J Public Health Res 6:904.HumanFatObesity
Wu 2017 Sci Rep2017Wu LH, Chang SC, Fu TC, Huang CH, Wang JS (2017) High-intensity interval training improves mitochondrial function and suppresses thrombin generation in platelets undergoing hypoxic stress. Sci Rep 7:4191.HumanBlood cells
Distefano 2016 J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci2016Distefano G, Standley RA, Dubé JJ, Carnero EA, Ritov VB, Stefanovic-Racic M, Toledo FG, Piva SR, Goodpaster BH, Coen PM (2016) Chronological age does not influence ex-vivo mitochondrial respiration and quality control in skeletal muscle. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 72:535-42.HumanSkeletal muscleAging;senescence
Sperrin 2016 J Public Health (Oxf)2016Sperrin M, Marshall AD, Higgins V, Renehan AG, Buchan IE (2016) Body mass index relates weight to height differently in women and older adults: serial cross-sectional surveys in England (1992-2011). J Public Health (Oxf) 38:607-613.HumanObesity
Johnson 2016 Diabetes2016Johnson ML, Distelmaier K, Lanza IR, Irving BA, Robinson MM, Konopka AR, Shulman GI, Nair KS (2016) Mechanism by which caloric restriction improves insulin sensitivity in sedentary obese adults. Diabetes 65:74-84.HumanSkeletal muscleDiabetes
NCD-RisC 2016 Elife2016NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC) (2016) A century of trends in adult human height. Elife 5 pii: e13410. doi: 10.7554/eLife.13410.Human
Salvadego 2016 J Appl Physiol (1985)2016Salvadego D, Keramidas ME, Brocca L, Domenis R, Mavelli I, Rittweger J, Eiken O, Mekjavic IB, Grassi B (2016) Separate and combined effects of a 10-d exposure to hypoxia and inactivity on oxidative function in vivo and mitochondrial respiration ex vivo in humans. J Appl Physiol (1985) 121:154-63.HumanSkeletal muscleCryopreservation
Lalia 2016 J Clin Endocrinol Metab2016Lalia AZ, Dasari S, Johnson ML, Robinson MM, Konopka AR, Distelmaier K, Port JD, Glavin MT, Esponda RR, Nair KS, Lanza IR (2016) Predictors of whole-body insulin sensitivity across ages and adiposity in adult humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 101:626-34.HumanSkeletal muscleAging;senescence
Kroenke 2016 JAMA Oncol2016Kroenke CH, Neugebauer R, Meyerhardt J, Prado CM, Weltzien E, Kwan ML, Xiao J, Caan BJ ( 2016) Analysis of body mass index and mortality in patients with colorectal cancer using causal diagrams. JAMA Oncol 2:1137–45.HumanAging;senescence
Tam 2016 Eur J Appl Physiol2016Tam E, Bruseghini P, Calabria E, Sacco LD, Doria C, Grassi B, Pietrangelo T, Pogliaghi S, Reggiani C, Salvadego D, Schena F, Toniolo L, Verratti V, Vernillo G, Capelli C (2016) Gokyo Khumbu/Ama Dablam Trek 2012: effects of physical training and high-altitude exposure on oxidative metabolism, muscle composition, and metabolic cost of walking in women. Eur J Appl Physiol 116:129-44.HumanSkeletal muscle
Spendiff 2016 J Physiol2016Spendiff S, Vuda M, Gouspillou G, Aare S, Perez A, Morais JA, Jagoe RT, Filion ME, Glicksman R, Kapchinsky S, MacMillan NJ, Pion CH, Aubertin-Leheudre M, Hettwer S, Correa JA, Taivassalo T, Hepple RT (2016) Denervation drives mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle of octogenarians. J Physiol 594:7361-79.Human
Skeletal musclePermeability transitionAging;senescence
Apovian 2016 Am J Manag Care2016Apovian CM (2016) Obesity: definition, comorbidities, causes, and burden. Am J Manag Care 22(7 Suppl):s176–85.HumanObesity
Iwaniec 2016 J Endocrinol2016Iwaniec UT, Turner RT (2016) Influence of body weight on bone mass, architecture and turnover. J Endocrinol 230: R115-30.Human
Gemmink 2016 Diabetologia2016Gemmink A, Bosma M, Kuijpers HJ, Hoeks J, Schaart G, van Zandvoort MA, Schrauwen P, Hesselink MK (2016) Decoration of intramyocellular lipid droplets with PLIN5 modulates fasting-induced insulin resistance and lipotoxicity in humans. Diabetologia 59:1040-8.HumanSkeletal muscleDiabetes
Korre 2016 Am J Cardiol2016Korre M, Porto LG, Farioli A, Yang J, Christiani DC, Christophi CA, Lombardi DA, Kovacs RJ, Mastouri R, Abbasi S, Steigner M, Moffatt S, Smith D, Kales SN (2016) Effect of body mass index on left ventricular mass in career male firefighters. Am J Cardiol 118:1769-1773.HumanHeartCardiovascular
Gifford 2015 J Physiol2015Gifford JR, Garten RS, Nelson AD, Trinity JD, Layec G, Witman MA, Weavil JC, Mangum T, Hart C, Etheredge C, Jessop J, Bledsoe A, Morgan DE, Wray DW, Richardson RS (2015) Symmorphosis and skeletal muscle VO2max: in vivo and in vitro measures reveal differing constraints in the exercise-trained and untrained human. J Physiol 594:1741-51.HumanSkeletal muscle
Al-Gindan 2015 Br J Nutr2015Al-Gindan YY, Hankey CR, Govan L, Gallagher D, Heymsfield SB, Lean ME (2015) Derivation and validation of simple anthropometric equations to predict adipose tissue mass and total fat mass with MRI as the reference method. Br J Nutr 114:1852-67.HumanFatObesity
Nevill 2015 Nutr Diabetes2015Nevill AM, Metsios GS (2015) The need to redefine age- and gender-specific overweight and obese body mass index cutoff points. Nutr Diabetes 5:e186.HumanFatAging;senescence
Ludzki 2015 Diabetes2015Ludzki A, Paglialunga S, Smith BK, Herbst EA, Allison MK, Heigenhauser GJ, Neufer PD, Holloway GP (2015) Rapid repression of ADP transport by palmitoyl-CoA is attenuated by exercise training in humans; a potential mechanism to decrease oxidative stress and improve skeletal muscle insulin signaling. Diabetes 64:2769-79.Human
Skeletal muscleDiabetes
Van de Weijer 2015 Diabetes2015van de Weijer T, Phielix E, Bilet L, Williams EG, Ropelle ER, Bierwagen A, Livingstone R, Nowotny P, Sparks LM, Paglialunga S, Szendroedi J, Havekes B, Moullan N, Pirinen E, Hwang JH, Schrauwen-Hinderling VB, Hesselink MK, Auwerx J, Roden M, Schrauwen P (2015) Evidence for a direct effect of the NAD+ precursor acipimox on muscle mitochondrial function in humans. Diabetes 64:1193-201.HumanSkeletal muscleDiabetes
Gnaiger 2015 Scand J Med Sci Sports2015Gnaiger E, Boushel R, Søndergaard H, Munch-Andersen T, Damsgaard R, Hagen C, Díez-Sánchez C, Ara I, Wright-Paradis C, Schrauwen P, Hesselink M, Calbet JAL, Christiansen M, Helge JW, Saltin B (2015) Mitochondrial coupling and capacity of oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle of Inuit and caucasians in the arctic winter. Scand J Med Sci Sports 25 (Suppl 4):126–34.HumanSkeletal muscleTemperature
Tompuri 2015 Clin Physiol Funct Imaging2015Tompuri T, Lintu N, Savonen K, Laitinen T, Laaksonen D, Jääskeläinen J, Lakka TA (2015) Measures of cardiorespiratory fitness in relation to measures of body size and composition among children. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 35:469-77.HumanObesity
Indian Academy of Pediatrics Growth Charts Committee 2015 Indian Pediatr2015Indian Academy of Pediatrics Growth Charts Committee, Khadilkar V, Yadav S, Agrawal KK, Tamboli S, Banerjee M, Cherian A, Goyal JP, Khadilkar A, Kumaravel V, Mohan V, Narayanappa D, Ray I, Yewale V (2015) Revised IAP growth charts for height, weight and body mass index for 5- to 18-year-old Indian children. Indian Pediatr 52:47-55.HumanAging;senescence
Coen 2015 Diabetes2015Coen PM, Menshikova EV, Distefano G, Zheng D, Tanner CJ, Standley RA, Helbling NL, Dubis GS, Ritov VB, Xie H, Desimone ME, Smith SR, Stefanovic-Racic M, Toledo FG, Houmard JA, Goodpaster BH (2015) Exercise and weight loss improve muscle mitochondrial respiration, lipid partitioning, and insulin sensitivity after gastric bypass surgery. Diabetes 64:3737-50.HumanSkeletal muscleObesity
Irving 2015 J Clin Endocrinol Metab2015Irving BA, Lanza IR, Henderson GC, Rao RR, Spiegelman BM, Nair KS (2015) Combined training enhances skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity independent of age. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 100:1654-63.HumanSkeletal muscle
Karabatsiakis 2014 Transl Psychiatry2014Karabatsiakis A, Boeck C, Salinas-Manrique J, Kolassa S, Calzia E, Dietrich DE, Kolassa IT (2014) Mitochondrial respiration in peripheral blood mononuclear cells correlates with depressive subsymptoms and severity of major depression. Transl Psychiatry 4:e397.HumanBlood cellsCryopreservationNeurodegenerative
Broskey 2014 J Clin Endocrinol Metab2014Broskey NT, Greggio C, Boss A, Boutant M, Dwyer A, Schlueter L, Hans D, Gremion G, Kreis R, Boesch C, Canto AC, Amati F (2014) Skeletal muscle mitochondria in the elderly: effects of physical fitness and exercise training. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 99:1852-61.HumanSkeletal muscleCryopreservationAging;senescence
Keys 2014 Int J Epidemiol2014Keys A, Fidanza F, Karvonen MJ, Kimura N, Taylor HL (2014) Indices of relative weight and obesity. Int J Epidemiol 43:655-65.HumanFatObesity
Ludzki 2014 Thesis2014Ludzki AC (2014) Palmitoyl-CoA inhibition of mitochondrial ADP sensitivity is attenuated by exercise training in human skeletal muscle. Master's Thesis 1-86.Human
Skeletal muscle
Kuper 2014 BMC Public Health2014Kuper H, Taylor A, Krishna KV, Ben-Shlomo Y, Gupta R, Kulkarni B, Prabhakaran D, Davey Smith G, Wells J, Ebrahim S, Kinra S (2014) Is vulnerability to cardiometabolic disease in Indians mediated by abdominal adiposity or higher body adiposity. BMC Public Health 14:1239.HumanFatCardiovascular
Heymsfield 2014 Am J Clin Nutr2014Heymsfield SB, Peterson CM, Thomas DM, Heo M, Schuna JM Jr, Hong S, Choi W (2014) Scaling of adult body weight to height across sex and race/ethnic groups: relevance to BMI. Am J Clin Nutr 100:1455-61.Human
Gram 2014 Exp Gerontol2014Gram M, Vigelsoe A, Yokota T, Hansen CN, Helge JW, Hey-Mogensen M, Dela F (2014) Two weeks of one-leg immobilization decreases skeletal muscle 2 respiratory capacity equally in young and elderly men. Exp Gerontol 58C:269-78.HumanSkeletal muscleAging;senescence
Dube 2014 Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab2014Dube JJ, Coen PM, DiStefano G, Chacon AC, Helbling NL, Desimone ME, Stafanovic-Racic M, Hames KC, Despines AA, Toledo FG, Goodpaster BH (2014) Effects of acute lipid overload on skeletal muscle insulin resistance, metabolic flexibility, and mitochondrial performance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 307:E1117-24.HumanSkeletal muscleDiabetes
Mialich 2014 Nutr Hosp2014Mialich MS, Martinez EZ, Jordao JJ (2014) Application of body mass index adjusted for fat mass (BMIfat) obtained by bioelectrical impedance in adults. Nutr Hosp 30:417-24.HumanFatObesity
Genne-Bacon 2014 Yale J Biol Med2014Genné-Bacon EA (2014) Thinking evolutionarily about obesity. Yale J Biol Med 87:99-112.HumanObesity
Zeng 2014 Br J Nutr2014Zeng Q, He Y, Dong S, Zhao X, Chen Z, Song Z, Chang G, Yang F, Wang Y (2014) Optimal cut-off values of BMI, waist circumference and waist:height ratio for defining obesity in Chinese adults. Br J Nutr 112:1735-44.HumanCardiovascular
Afolabi 2013 Int J Sci Engin Res2013Afolabi BO, Akanbi OG (2013) Effects of body mass index on aerobic power (VO2max) and energy expenditure (EE): a case of manual load lifting in agro-processing. Int J Sci Engin Res 4:1718-21.Human
Johnson 2013 Obesity (Silver Spring)2013Johnson RJ, Stenvinkel P, Martin SL, Jani A, Sánchez-Lozada LG, Hill JO, Lanaspa MA (2013) Redefining metabolic syndrome as a fat storage condition based on studies of comparative physiology. Obesity (Silver Spring) 21:659-64.HumanObesity
Andersen 2013 Int J Circumpolar Health2013Andersen S, Fleischer Rex K, Noahsen P, Sørensen HC, Mulvad G, Laurberg P (2013) Raised BMI cut-off for overweight in Greenland Inuit--a review. Int J Circumpolar Health 2013 Aug 5;72. doi: 10.3402/ijch.v72i0.21086.Obesity
Bonthuis 2013 PLOS ONE2013Bonthuis M, Jager KJ, Abu-Hanna A, Verrina E, Schaefer F, van Stralen KJ (2013) Application of body mass index according to height-age in short and tall children. PLOS ONE 8:e72068.Human
Dagan 2013 Nutr J2013Dagan SS, Segev S, Novikov I, Dankner R (2013) Waist circumference vs body mass index in association with cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy men and women: a cross sectional analysis of 403 subjects. Nutr J 12:12.Human
Loe 2013 PLOS ONE2013Loe H, Rognmo Ø, Saltin B, Wisløff U (2013) Aerobic capacity reference data in 3816 healthy men and women 20-90 years. PLOS ONE 8:e64319.Human
Hernandez-Aguilera 2013 Mediators Inflamm2013Hernández-Aguilera A, Rull A, Rodríguez-Gallego E, Riera-Borrull M, Luciano-Mateo F, Camps J, Menéndez JA, Joven J (2013) Mitochondrial dysfunction: a basic mechanism in inflammation-related non-communicable diseases and therapeutic opportunities. Mediators Inflamm 2013:135698.HumanFatOxidative stress;RONSObesity
Setty 2013 Int J Med Sci Public Health2013Setty P, Padmanabha BV, Doddamani BR (2013) Correlation between obesity and cardio respiratory fitness. Int J Med Sci Public Health 2:300-4.HumanObesity
Tipton 2012 Nursing2012Tipton PH, Aigner MJ, Finto D, Haislet JA, Pehl L, Sanford P, Williams M (2012) Consider the accuracy of height and weight measurements. Nursing 42:50-2.Human
Phielix 2012 Diabetes2012Phielix E, Meex R, Ouwens DM, Sparks LM, Hoeks J, Schaart G, Moonen-Kornips E, Hesselink MK, Schrauwen P (2012) High oxidative capacity due to chronic exercise training attenuates lipid-induced insulin resistance. Diabetes 61:2472-8.HumanSkeletal muscleMitochondrial diseaseDiabetes
Thomas 2012 Nutr Res Rev2012Thomas EL, Frost G, Taylor-Robinson SD, Bell JD (2012) Excess body fat in obese and normal-weight subjects. Nutr Res Rev 25:150–61.HumanFatObesity
Timmers 2011 Cell Metab2011Timmers S, Konings E, Bilet L, Houtkooper RH, van de Weijer T, Goossens GH, Hoeks J, van der Krieken S, Ryu D, Kersten S, Moonen-Kornips E, Hesselink MK, Kunz I, Schrauwen-Hinderling VB, Blaak EE, Auwerx J, Schrauwen P (2011) Calorie restriction-like effects of 30 days of resveratrol supplementation on energy metabolism and metabolic profile in obese humans. Cell Metab 14:612-22.HumanSkeletal muscleObesity
Misra 2011 Int J Obes (Lond)2011Misra A, Khurana L (2011) Obesity-related non-communicable diseases: South Asians vs White Caucasians. Int J Obes (Lond) 35:167–87.HumanFatCardiovascular
Studenski 2011 JAMA2011Studenski Stephanie, Perera Subashan, Patel Kushang, Rosano Caterina, Faulkner Kimberly, Inzitari Marco, Brach Jennifer, Chandler Julie, Cawthon Peggy, Connor Elizabeth Barrett, Nevitt Michael, Visser Marjolein, Kritchevsky Stephen, Badinelli Stefania, Harris Tamara, Newman Anne B, Cauley Jane, Ferrucci Luigi, Guralnik Jack (2011) Gait speed and survival in older adults. JAMA 305:50–8.HumanAging;senescence
Pesta 2011 Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol2011Pesta D, Hoppel F, Macek C, Messner H, Faulhaber M, Kobel C, Parson W, Burtscher M, Schocke M, Gnaiger E (2011) Similar qualitative and quantitative changes of mitochondrial respiration following strength and endurance training in normoxia and hypoxia in sedentary humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 301:R1078–87.HumanSkeletal muscleHypoxiaObesity
Chomentowski 2011 J Clin Endocrinol Metab2011Chomentowski P, Coen PM, Radiková Z, Goodpaster BH, Toledo FG (2011) Skeletal muscle mitochondria in insulin resistance: Differences in intermyofibrillar versus subsarcolemmal subpopulations and relationship to metabolic flexibility. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96: 494-503.HumanSkeletal muscleDiabetes
Bergman 2011 Obesity (Silver Spring)2011Bergman RN, Stefanovski D, Buchanan TA, Sumner AE, Reynolds JC, Sebring NG, Xiang AH, Watanabe RM (2011) A better index of body adiposity. Obesity (Silver Spring) 19:1083-9.HumanFatObesity
Meeuwsen 2010 Clin Nutr2010Meeuwsen S, Horgan GW, Elia M (2010) The relationship between BMI and percent body fat, measured by bioelectrical impedance, in a large adult sample is curvilinear and influenced by age and sex. Clin Nutr 29:560-6.HumanFatAging;senescence
So 2010 J Sports Sci Med2010So WY, Choi DH (2010) Differences in physical fitness and cardiovascular function depend on BMI in Korean men. J Sports Sci Med 9:239-44.Human
Wang 2010 Biomed Environ Sci2010Wang C, Hou XH, Zhang ML, Bao YQ, Zou YH, Zhong WH, Xiang KS, Jia WP (2010) Comparison of body mass index with body fat percentage in the evaluation of obesity in Chinese. Biomed Environ Sci 23:173-9.HumanDiabetes
Pribis 2010 Nutrients2010Pribis P, Burtnack CA, McKenzie SO, Thayer J (2010) Trends in body fat, body mass index and physical fitness among male and female college students. Nutrients 2:1075-85.HumanObesity
Volkow 2009 Obesity (Silver Spring)2009Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Telang F, Fowler JS, Goldstein RZ, Alia-Klein N, Logan J, Wong C, Thanos PK, Ma Y, Pradhan K (2009) Inverse association between BMI and prefrontal metabolic activity in healthy adults. Obesity (Silver Spring) 17:60-5.HumanNervous systemObesity
Misra 2009 J Assoc Physicians India2009Misra A, Chowbey P, Makkar BM, Vikram NK, Wasir JS, Chadha D, Joshi Shashank R, Sadikot S, Gupta R, Gulati Seema, Munjal YP, Concensus Group (2009) Consensus statement for diagnosis of obesity, abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome for Asian Indians and recommendations for physical activity, medical and surgical management. J Assoc Physicians India 57:163–70.HumanFatCardiovascular
Walley 2009 Nat Rev Genet2009Walley AJ, Asher JE, Froguel P (2009) The genetic contribution to non-syndromic human obesity. Nat Rev Genet 10:431–42.HumanObesity
Gnaiger 2009 Int J Biochem Cell Biol2009Gnaiger E (2009) Capacity of oxidative phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle. New perspectives of mitochondrial physiology. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 41:1837-45.Human
Skeletal muscleAging;senescence
Raboel 2009 Diabetes Obes Metab2009Raboel R, Hojberg PM, Almdal T, Boushel RC, Haugaard SB, Madsbad S, Dela F (2009) Improved glycaemic control decreases inner mitochondrial membrane leak in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab 11:355-60.HumanSkeletal muscleMitochondrial diseaseDiabetes
Bosy-Westphal 2009 Br J Nutr2009Bosy-Westphal A, Plachta-Danielzik S, Dörhöfer RP, Müller MJ (2009) Short stature and obesity: positive association in adults but inverse association in children and adolescents. Br J Nutr 102:453-61.FatObesity
Daussin 2008 Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol2008Daussin FN, Zoll J, Dufour SP, Ponsot E, Lonsdorfer-Wolf E, Doutreleau S, Mettauer B, Piquard F, Geny B, Richard R (2008) Effect of interval versus continuous training on cardiorespiratory and mitochondrial functions: relationship to aerobic performance improvements in sedentary subjects. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 295:R264-72.HumanSkeletal muscle
Romero-Corral 2008 Int J Obes (Lond)2008Romero-Corral A, Somers VK, Sierra-Johnson J, Thomas RJ, Collazo-Clavell ML, Korinek J, Allison TG, Batsis JA, Sert-Kuniyoshi FH, Lopez-Jimenez F (2008) Accuracy of body mass index in diagnosing obesity in the adult general population. Int J Obes (Lond) 32:959-66.HumanFatObesity
Nakhostin-Roohi 2008 J Sports Med Phys Fitness2008Nakhostin-Roohi B, Niknam Z (2008) BMI, fat percentage and VO2max in college female staff. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 48:211-6.Human
Cohen 2008 Am J Clin Nutr2008Cohen DA, Sturm R (2008) Body mass index is increasing faster among taller persons. Am J Clin Nutr 87:445-8.HumanObesity
Bakkman 2007 ActaPhysiol2007Bakkman L, Sahlin K, Holmberg HC, Tonkonogi M (2007) Quantitative and qualitative adaptation of human skeletal muscle mitochondria to hypoxic compared with normoxic training at the same relative work rate. Acta Physiol (Oxford) 190:243–51.HumanSkeletal muscleOxidative stress;RONS
Brien 2007 Can J Public Health2007Brien SE, Katzmarzyk PT, Craig CL, Gauvin L (2007) Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index as predictors of substantial weight gain and obesity: the Canadian physical activity longitudinal study. Can J Public Health 98:121-4..HumanObesity
Barquera 2007 Int J Obes (Lond)2007Barquera S, Peterson KE, Must A, Rogers BL, Flores M, Houser R, Monterrubio E, Rivera-Dommarco JA (2007) Coexistence of maternal central adiposity and child stunting in Mexico. Int J Obes (Lond) 31:601-7.HumanObesity
Joshi 2007 JAMA2007Joshi P, Islam S, Pais P, Reddy S, Dorairaj P, Kazmi K, Pandey MR, Haque S, Mendis S, Rangarajan S, Yusuf S (2007) Risk factors for early myocardial infarction in South Asians compared with individuals in other countries. JAMA 297:286-94.HumanCardiovascular
Rabinovich 2007 Eur Respir J2007Rabinovich RA, Bastos R, Ardite E, Llinàs L, Orozco-Levi M, Gea J, Vilaró J, Barberà JA, Rodríguez-Roisin R, Fernández-Checa JC, Roca J (2007) Mitochondrial dysfunction in COPD patients with low body mass index. Eur Respir J 29:643-50.HumanSkeletal muscleOxidative stress;RONS
Boushel 2007 Diabetologia2007Boushel RC, Gnaiger E, Schjerling P, Skovbro M, Kraunsoee R, Dela F (2007) Patients with Type 2 diabetes have normal mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Diabetologia 50:790-6.HumanSkeletal muscleDiabetes
De Onis 2007 Bull World Health Organization2007de Onis M, Onyango AW, Borghi E, Siyam A, Nishida C, Siekmann J (2007) Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents. Bull World Health Organization 85:660-7.HumanObesity
Heymsfield 2007 Am J Clin Nutr2007Heymsfield SB, Gallagher D, Mayer L, Beetsch J, Pietrobelli A (2007) Scaling of human body composition to stature: new insights into body mass index. Am J Clin Nutr 86:82-91.HumanSkeletal muscle
Nervous system
Wells 2007 Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc2007Wells JC (2007) The thrifty phenotype as an adaptive maternal effect. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 82:143-72.HumanObesity
Dufour 2006 J Appl Physiol (1985)2006Dufour SP, Ponsot E, Zoll J, Doutreleau S, Lonsdorfer-Wolf E, Geny B, Lampert E, Flück M, Hoppeler H, Billat V, Mettauer B, Richard R, Lonsdorfer J (2006) Exercise training in normobaric hypoxia in endurance runners. I. Improvement in aerobic performance capacity. J Appl Physiol (1985) 100:1238-48.HumanHypoxia
WHO 2006 Acta Paediatr2006WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group (2006) WHO Child Growth Standards based on length/height, weight and age. Acta Paediatr Suppl 450:76-85.Human
Wells 2006 Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc2006Wells JC (2006) The evolution of human fatness and susceptibility to obesity: an ethological approach. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 81:183-205.HumanObesity
WHO 2006 Geneva: World Health Organization2006WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group (2006) WHO child growth standards: length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height and body mass index-for-age: Methods and development. Geneva: World Health Organization 312 pp.HumanObesity
Mogensen 2006 J Physiol2006Mogensen M, Bagger M, Pedersen PK, Fernström M, Sahlin K (2006) Cycling efficiency in humans is related to low UCP3 content and to type I fibres but not to mitochondrial efficiency. J Physiol 571:669-81.HumanSkeletal muscle
Ponsot 2006 J Appl Physiol (1985)2006Ponsot E, Dufour SP, Zoll J, Doutrelau S, N'Guessan B, Geny B, Hoppeler H, Lampert E, Mettauer B, Ventura-Clapier R, Richard R (2006) Exercise training in normobaric hypoxia in endurance runners. II. Improvement of mitochondrial properties in skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol (1985) 100:1249-57.HumanSkeletal muscleHypoxia
Diverse Populations Collaborative Group 2005 Am J Phys Anthropol2005Diverse Populations Collaborative Group (2005) Weight-height relationships and body mass index: some observations from the Diverse Populations Collaboration. Am J Phys Anthropol 128:220-9.Human
Garnier 2005 FASEB J2005Garnier A, Fortin D, Zoll J, N'Guessan B, Mettauer B, Lampert E, Veksler V, Ventura-Clapier R (2005) Coordinated changes in mitochondrial function and biogenesis in healthy and diseased human skeletal muscle. FASEB J 19:43-52.HumanSkeletal muscle
N'Guessan 2004 Mol Cell Biochem2004N'Guessan B, Zoll J, Ribera F, Ponsot E, Lampert E, Ventura-Clapier R, Veksler V, Mettauer B (2004) Evaluation of quantitative and qualitative aspects of mitochondrial function in human skeletal and cardiac muscles. Mol Cell Biochem 256-257:267-80.HumanSkeletal muscle
WHO Expert Consultation 2004 Lancet2004WHO Expert Consultation (2004) Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet 363:157-63.HumanObesity
Rasmussen 2003 Eur J Physiol2003Rasmussen UF, Krustrup P, Kjaer M, Rasmussen HN (2003) Human skeletal muscle mitochondrial metabolism in youth and senescence: no signs of functional changes in ATP formation and mitochondrial oxidative capacity. Pflugers Arch – Eur J Physiol 446:270-78.HumanSkeletal muscleAging;senescence
Chen 2002 Obes Rev2002Chen W, Lin CC, Peng CT, Li CI, Wu HC, Chiang J, Wu JY, Huang PC (2002) Approaching healthy body mass index norms for children and adolescents from health-related physical fitness. Obes Rev 3:225-32.HumanObesity
Echaniz-Laguna 2002 Ann Neurol2002Echaniz-Laguna A, Zoll J, Ribera F, Tranchant C, Warter JM, Lonsdorfer J, Lampert E (2002) Mitochondrial respiratory chain function in skeletal muscle of ALS patients. Ann Neurol 52:623-7.HumanSkeletal muscleNeurodegenerative
Colin 2002 Am J Epidemiol2002Colin Bell A, Adair LS, Popkin BM (2002) Ethnic differences in the association between body mass index and hypertension. Am J Epidemiol 155:346-53.HumanCardiovascular
Zoll 2002 J Physiol2002Zoll J, Sanchez H, N'Guessan B, Ribera F, Lampert E, Bigard X, Surrurier B, Fortin D, Geny B, Veksler V, Ventura-Clapier R, Mettauer B (2002) Physical activity changes the regulation of mitochondrial respiration in human skeletal muscle. J Physiol 543:191-200.HumanSkeletal muscle
Mettauer 2001 J Am Coll Cardiol2001Mettauer B, Zoll J, Sanchez H, Lampert E, Ribera F, Veksler V, Bigard X, Mateo P, Epailly E, Lonsdorfer J, Ventura-Clapier R (2001) Oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle in heart failure patients versus sedentary or active control subjects. J Am Coll Cardiol 38:947-54.HumanSkeletal muscleCardiovascular
Deurenberg 2001 Eur J Clin Nutr2001Deurenberg P, Andreoli A, Borg P, Kukkonen-Harjula K, de Lorenzo A, van Marken Lichtenbelt WD, Testolin G, Vigano R, Vollaard N (2001) The validity of predicted body fat percentage from body mass index and from impedance in samples of five European populations. Eur J Clin Nutr 55:973-9.HumanFatObesity
Rasmussen 2001 Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab2001Rasmussen UF, Rasmussen HN, Krustrup P, Quistorff B, Saltin B, Bangsbo J (2001) Aerobic metabolism of human quadriceps muscle: in vivo data parallel measurements on isolated mitochondria. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 280:E301-7.HumanSkeletal muscle
Gallagher 2000 Am J Clin Nutr2000Gallagher D, Heymsfield SB, Heo M, Jebb SA, Murgatroyd PR, Sakamoto Y (2000) Healthy percentage body fat ranges: an approach for developing guidelines based on body mass index. Am J Clin Nutr 72:694-701.HumanFatObesity
Cole 2000 BMJ2000Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH (2000) Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ 320:1240-3.HumanObesity
WHO 2000 Sydney Health Comm AU2000WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific (2000) The Asia-Pacific perspective: redefining obesity and its treatment. World Health Organization Western Pacific Region 55 pp.HumanObesity
Wei 1999 JAMA1999Wei M, Kampert JB, Barlow CE, Nichaman MZ, Gibbons LW, Paffenbarger RS Jr, Blair SN (1999) Relationship between low cardiorespiratory fitness and mortality in normal-weight, overweight, and obese men. JAMA 282:1547-53.HumanCardiovascular
Zucker 1962 Committee on Biological Handbooks, Fed Amer Soc Exp Biol1962Zucker TF (1962) Regression of standing and sitting weights on body weight: man. In: Growth including reproduction and morphological development. Altman PL, Dittmer DS, eds: Committee on Biological Handbooks, Fed Amer Soc Exp Biol:336-7.Human
Neel 1962 Am J Hum Genet1962Neel JV (1962) Diabetes mellitus: a "thrifty" genotype rendered detrimental by "progress"? Am J Hum Genet 14:353-62.HumanObesity

Publications: BME and height

» Height of humans
Bosy-Westphal 2009 Br J NutrBosy-Westphal A, Plachta-Danielzik S, Dörhöfer RP, Müller MJ (2009) Short stature and obesity: positive association in adults but inverse association in children and adolescents. Br J Nutr 102:453-61.
De Onis 2007 Bull World Health Organizationde Onis M, Onyango AW, Borghi E, Siyam A, Nishida C, Siekmann J (2007) Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents. Bull World Health Organization 85:660-7.
Gnaiger 2019 MiP2019
Erich Gnaiger
OXPHOS capacity in human muscle tissue and body mass excess – the MitoEAGLE mission towards an integrative database (Version 6; 2020-01-12).
Hood 2019 Nutr DiabetesHood K, Ashcraft J, Watts K, Hong S, Choi W, Heymsfield SB, Gautam RK, Thomas D (2019) Allometric scaling of weight to height and resulting body mass index thresholds in two Asian populations. Nutr Diabetes 9:2. doi: 10.1038/s41387-018-0068-3.
Indian Academy of Pediatrics Growth Charts Committee 2015 Indian PediatrIndian Academy of Pediatrics Growth Charts Committee, Khadilkar V, Yadav S, Agrawal KK, Tamboli S, Banerjee M, Cherian A, Goyal JP, Khadilkar A, Kumaravel V, Mohan V, Narayanappa D, Ray I, Yewale V (2015) Revised IAP growth charts for height, weight and body mass index for 5- to 18-year-old Indian children. Indian Pediatr 52:47-55.
Zucker 1962 Committee on Biological Handbooks, Fed Amer Soc Exp BiolZucker TF (1962) Regression of standing and sitting weights on body weight: man. In: Growth including reproduction and morphological development. Altman PL, Dittmer DS, eds: Committee on Biological Handbooks, Fed Amer Soc Exp Biol:336-7.

MitoPedia: BME and mitObesity

» Body mass excess and mitObesity | BME and mitObesity news | Summary |

BME cutoff pointsBME cutoffObesity is defined as a disease associated with an excess of body fat with respect to a healthy reference condition. Cutoff points for body mass excess, BME cutoff points, define the critical values for underweight (-0.1 and -0.2), overweight (0.2), and various degrees of obesity (0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and above). BME cutoffs are calibrated by crossover-points of BME with established BMI cutoffs.
Body fat excessBFEIn the healthy reference population (HRP), there is zero body fat excess, BFE, and the fraction of excess body fat in the HRP is expressed - by definition - relative to the reference body mass, M°, at any given height. Importantly, body fat excess, BFE, and body mass excess, BME, are linearly related, which is not the case for the body mass index, BMI.
Body massm [kg]; M [kg·x-1]The body mass, M, is the mass (kilogram [kg]) of an individual (object) [x] and is expressed in units [kg/x]. Whereas the body weight changes as a function of gravitational force (you are weightless at zero gravity; your floating weight in water is different from your weight in air), your mass is independent of gravitational force, and it is the same in air and water.
Body mass excessBMEThe body mass excess, BME, is an index of obesity and as such BME is a lifestyle metric. The BME is a measure of the extent to which your actual body mass, M [kg/x], deviates from M° [kg/x], which is the reference body mass [kg] per individual [x] without excess body fat in the healthy reference population, HRP. A balanced BME is BME° = 0.0 with a band width of -0.1 towards underweight and +0.2 towards overweight. The BME is linearly related to the body fat excess.
Body mass indexBMIThe body mass index, BMI, is the ratio of body mass to height squared (BMI=M·H-2), recommended by the WHO as a general indicator of underweight (BMI<18.5 kg·m-2), overweight (BMI>25 kg·m-2) and obesity (BMI>30 kg·m-2). Keys et al (1972; see 2014) emphasized that 'the prime criterion must be the relative independence of the index from height'. It is exactly the dependence of the BMI on height - from children to adults, women to men, Caucasians to Asians -, which requires adjustments of BMI-cutoff points. This deficiency is resolved by the body mass excess relative to the healthy reference population.
ComorbidityComorbidities are common in obesogenic lifestyle-induced early aging. These are preventable, non-communicable diseases with strong associations to obesity. In many studies, cause and effect in the sequence of onset of comorbidities remain elusive. Chronic degenerative diseases are commonly obesity-induced. The search for the link between obesity and the etiology of diverse preventable diseases lead to the hypothesis, that mitochondrial dysfunction is the common mechanism, summarized in the term 'mitObesity'.
Healthy reference populationHRPA healthy reference population, HRP, establishes the baseline for the relation between body mass and height in healthy people of zero underweight or overweight, providing a reference for evaluation of deviations towards underweight or overweight and obesity. The WHO Child Growth Standards (WHO-CGS) on height and body mass refer to healthy girls and boys from Brazil, Ghana, India, Norway, Oman and the USA. The Committee on Biological Handbooks compiled data on height and body mass of healthy males from infancy to old age (USA), published before emergence of the fast-food and soft-drink epidemic. Four allometric phases are distinguished with distinct allometric exponents. At heights above 1.26 m/x the allometric exponent is 2.9, equal in women and men, and significantly different from the exponent of 2.0 implicated in the body mass index, BMI [kg/m2].
Height of humansh [m]; H [m·x-1]The height of humans, h, is given in SI units in meters [m]. Humans are countable objects, and the symbol and unit of the number of objects is N [x]. The average height of N objects is, H = h/N [m/x], where h is the heights of all N objects measured on top of each other. Therefore, the height per human has the unit [m·x-1] (compare body mass [kg·x-1]). Without further identifyer, H is considered as the standing height of a human, measured without shoes, hair ornaments and heavy outer garments.
Lengthl [m]Length l is an SI base quantity with SI base unit meter m. Quantities derived from length are area A [m2] and volume V [m3]. Length is an extensive quantity, increasing additively with the number of objects. The term 'height' h is used for length in cases of vertical position (see height of humans). Length of height per object, LUX [m·x-1] is length per unit-entity UX, in contrast to lentgth of a system, which may contain one or many entities, such as the length of a pipeline assembled from a number NX of individual pipes. Length is a quantity linked to direct sensory, practical experience, as reflected in terms related to length: long/short (height: tall/small). Terms such as 'long/short distance' are then used by analogy in the context of the more abstract quantity time (long/short duration).
MitObesity drugsBioactive mitObesity compounds are drugs and nutraceuticals with more or less reproducible beneficial effects in the treatment of diverse preventable degenerative diseases implicated in comorbidities linked to obesity, characterized by common mechanisms of action targeting mitochondria.
ObesityObesity is a disease resulting from excessive accumulation of body fat. In common obesity (non-syndromic obesity) excessive body fat is due to an obesogenic lifestyle with lack of physical exercise ('couch') and caloric surplus of food consumption ('potato'), causing several comorbidities which are characterized as preventable non-communicable diseases. Persistent body fat excess associated with deficits of physical activity induces a weight-lifting effect on increasing muscle mass with decreasing mitochondrial capacity. Body fat excess, therefore, correlates with body mass excess up to a critical stage of obesogenic lifestyle-induced sarcopenia, when loss of muscle mass results in further deterioration of physical performance particularly at older age.
VO2maxVO2max; VO2max/MMaximum oxygen consumption, VO2max, is and index of cardiorespiratory fitness, measured by spiroergometry on human and animal organisms capable of controlled physical exercise performance on a treadmill or cycle ergometer. VO2max is the maximum respiration of an organism, expressed as the volume of O2 at STPD consumed per unit of time per individual object [mL.min-1.x-1]. If normalized per body mass of the individual object, M [kg.x-1], mass specific maximum oxygen consumption, VO2max/M, is expressed in units [].

MitoPedia concepts: MiP concept